Category: Internet

Sd card size for Raspberry Pi 3
January 11th, 2018 by ronny

Sd card size for raspberry pi 3 capacity wise is for normal cards 32GB. To use any SD card larger than 32GB you will need to format your SD card to FAT32. Raspberry Pi 3 is not able to boot from exFAT. The bootloader built into the Raspberry 3 cannot be updated to fix this either. It is built into the GPU.

Sd card size for Raspberry Pi 3

Can I use SDXC cards for my Raspberry 3?

No. Per definition SDXC is an SD card larger than 32GB and formatted with exFAT. You can use FAT32 filesystem for such large SD cards. If you got one of those cards you will need to reformat it.

Sd card size for raspberry pi 3 physical size

Only the Raspberry Pi A and B use full-size SD cards. The rest uses Micro SD Cards. Raspberry Pi A+, Raspberry Pi B+, Raspberry Pi 2 B, Raspberry Pi Zero and Raspberry Pi 3 B all uses Micro SD.

Sd card size for raspberry pi 3 larger than 32GB.

As mentioned above you need to format the card for FAT32. If you are running Linux or MacOS you are good to go. They got the tools you need built-in. Windows require you to download some extra tools to reformat your SDXC to FAT32.

How to format my SD Card with Linux or MacOS?

MacOS users can use the default MacOS Disk Utility. This tool is able to format the entire SD Card and select MS-DOS as a file format. While some places it is called MS-DOS and other places it is called FAT32. It should be the same thing.

Linux users can use gparted or mkfs.fat to format SDCX to FAT32

How to format my SD Card with Windows?

Download the SD Memory Card formatter from You will also find instruction on their website on how to use it. It is available to all windows version from version 7 and newer. SD Memory Card formatter tool is also available for MacOS. But not really needed.

What now?

Is there an easy way to install the OS?

Yes. There is a tool called NOOB available on for Windows and MacOS. NOOB is easy to use OS installer for Raspberry. You can use it to install Raspbian. If you for some weird reason, just joking, would like Windows 10 IOT Core instead. IOT stands for Internet of Things. Noob will fix that too for you. Even Ubuntu Mate. Download it and give it a try. Will save you a ton of time.

Maybe you are into hardware emulating or retro computer, check out Raspberry Pi 3 UAE, emulating Amiga.

Posted in Internet, Raspberry Pi Tagged with: ,

Block top level domains
January 7th, 2018 by ronny

If you run a self-hosted mail server or are using an email service with Roundcube, there an effective way to stop most of your spam. That is to block top level domains in your filter settings.

Some spammers use the new top level domains to send out their massive amounts of spam. Because they are cheap. They rotate the domain names but keep using only a few top level domains. I stopped probably more than 80% of my spam by block top level domains.

If you read my previous article about Roundcube spam filter you are already familiar with how to block top level domains with Roundcube. It is almost the same as blocking domains.

How to Block top level domains

Enter your settings by clicking the settings button in Roundcube. You will find that in the top right corner after you logged in to Roundcube. As before click Filters, then managesiev and then your filter rules (if you made some). Or you can create a new filter set just for top level domains. There are a few things to remember when creating a filter set. So if you haven’t already, go back to my previous article.

We use “from” as we want to block emails “from” top level domains. Then we select “contains” as we want to block emails containing a string found in the domain names. One of the worst top level domains spammers use is “win”. So in the last field, you enter “.win”. Notice the dot before win. If you don’t put in the dot Roudcube will block all email addresses containing win. In the example this one: If you keep the dot before the top level domain name, only emails from the .win will be blocked.

Block top level domains

Block top level domains short list

Here is my list of the 7 worst top domain names you should block to stop most of your spam.

1. Win

2. Top

3. Stream

4. Trade

5. Loan

6. Bid

7. Club

And remember the dot before the name 🙂

This is Spamhaus statistics on top 10 worst top level domains for spammers. Not the same I got on my list. So your spam might come from other top level domains than my spam. You should find them easy enough.

Save your new filter setting, sit back and enjoy a much cleaner inbox.


Posted in Internet, Linux

Roundcube Spam Filter
January 3rd, 2018 by ronny

Like most other people, I hate spam, and with a self-hosted mail server, I needed to learn about Roundcube spam filter. Sometimes I received more than 100 emails every day. That’s really depressing when trying to avoid deleting the emails that are not spam. Something had to be done.

My first step was to block certain IPs and IP ranges. I will cover that part in another post. That can work really well against some spammers. Especially if they are using mass email services. Then you just run a whois against one of their IP’s and you usually find their IP range quite easily. When the range is found, just block the entire range. More about that in another post.

In some cases, I also blocked entire top-level domains, as some of the top level domains seems to be very popular among spammers. I will cover that too in a later post. That is very easy to do once you know how to do filters in Roundcube. First, we will look at how to make your own Roundcube spam filter.

Roundcube Spam Filter

The first thing we do after logging in click the settings button, and you should see something like the picture below.

roundcube spam filter 1

In the first row click Filters. Under filter sets you probably one have one item; managesieve. So, of course, click that one. The third and last row you have Filters. By default, you probably have one “named vacation”. That’s the one you enable if you want to send an out of office reply. The last filter is probably “Move Spam to Junk Folder”.

At the bottom of the Filter row, click the plus sign. Now a filter definition window will appear on the right side of the screen. Give your new spam filter a name. You can not save it until you have created the first filter rule.

Block a specific mail address

On the part of the filter name, your mail is ready for your filter rules. Change “subject” to “from”. The next drop down menu can just stay on “contains”. Or it can be “equal” for this example. It doesn’t matter since we will block a specific mail address. The last text field you will enter the mail address you want to block. Like in the picture below.

roundcube spam filter 2

Block the entire domain

Since we found out the spammers uses several different mail addresses from the same domain, we will block the entire domain. At the end of the line where you blocked the mail address, click the plus sign to add another filter rule. Select “From”, then “contains”. Here it is important that you select “contains” since we want to block all emails that are being sent from this domain. In the text field at the end, we type in the domain name. Just like in the picture below. Below the filter rules, you can select what to do with those emails you are catching with your filter. I would just delete them. Some spammers look for replies and that way they know your email address is being active. Because of that, I would avoid “Discard with message”. Even thou it is tempting to tell them to go to…

roundcube spam filter 3

When those two filter rules have been added you can save the filter. You could also have done that after the first filter rule. Now your filter set should appear in the third row at the bottom, under the “move spam to junk folder”. Now you need to grab your filter set with the mouse and move it above “move spam to junk folder”. That “move spam to junk folder” filter rule has enabled an option to stop evaluating more rules.

That’s if for creating your own Roundcube spam filter.

If you are interested, please check out Linux live log files.

Check out Spamhaus for known mass spammers.

Enjoy less spam!

Posted in Internet, Linux Tagged with: , ,

how to find color code
May 29th, 2017 by ronny

How to find color code

How to find color code is easy if you got access to Google. Open Google in a web browser and type in #ffffff (or any other hex code) in the search field. Now a color picking tool will open in your browser.

Googles color picking tool will give you the color value for several standards. The value codes you get is in Hex, RGB, HSV, HSL and CMYK. So this is how to find color code for most you needs.

Hex codes

How to find color code in Hex. Hex codes is six digits, or 3 groups of 2 digits. The first to digits in a hex code give you the value for red. The next two digits gives you the value for green. And the last two digits gives you the value for blue. Example on a hex code is #4365f5. That code will give you a nice blue color.

RGB Codes

How to find color code in RGB. Like the Hex colors, RGB colors are supported by all browsers. RGB also works just the same way as Hex, just being in decimal instead. Same colors are defined, and in same order. Also with same value. If we use the same example color as in the Hex example (#4365f5). We can also write that as RGB(67, 101, 245). Because 43 in hex is 67 in decimal. 65 in hex is 101 in decimal. And f5 in hex is 245 in decimal.

HSV codes

How to find color code in HSV. This is completely different from Hex and RGB codes. HSV stands for Hue, Saturation and Value. It is some kind of cylindrical representation of the color map. If we continue to use the previous example, the example color code will be hsv(229°, 73%, 96%).

hsv example

HSL Codes

How to find color code in HSL. HSL is very similar to HSV. HSL stands for Hue, Saturation and Lightness. As the HSV this is also based on a cylinrical representation of the color map. With the same color example, the HSL code is hsl(229°, 90%, 61%).

CMYK Codes

How to find color code in CMYK. This is the color codes the printers use. CMYK is the first letter for the colors it uses for printing. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key (Black). The CMYK code represent the value for each of those colors in percent, to create the desired color. We continue with the same blue color as in the other examples. We will get the code cmyk(73%, 59%, 0%, 4%).

How to find color code – summary of the examples

Hex #4365f5

RGB (67, 101, 245)

HSV (229°, 73%, 96%)

HSL (229°, 90%, 61%)

CMYK (73%, 59%, 0%, 4%)

That is a little bit on how the different color codes, that you can find on Googles tool, works.

Example on how the tool on this video on youtube.

Posted in Internet Tagged with: ,

Stay Safe from SS7
August 30th, 2016 by ronny

Stay safe from SS7 exploits is not easy. But a few easy measures can be done.

Anytime speaking on the phone, on normal lines not using any kind of apps like FaceTime or similar, dont say anything you wouldn’t say on YouTube. Attackers can listen to your phone anytime they want. Doesn’t matter if it is an iPhone, Samsung, Sony, Nokia or any other brand. The flaw is not in the phones. It is in the SS7 network, the network that connects all the phone networks together.

Same with SMS. Dont write anything you wouldn’t write on your Facebook wall. Ever since the SS7 made their network an IP network around 2000, it has been pretty much wide open to anyone who is interested.

So how to stay safe from SS7 exploits? Use FaceTime or similar for talking to someone. FaceTime, Skype and several other services sends their data encrypted over the internet instead of using the SS7 network.

Same with messages. Instead of using SMS use iMessage, Messenger or similar services. Same as with voice and video, these services sends the data encrypted over the internet instead of using the SS7 network.

Be careful if you need to, and stay safe!

Happy speaking!

Posted in Internet Tagged with: ,

Tor network dark web
June 17th, 2016 by ronny

Tor network dark web

The Tor network dark web is one part of the part of internet called Dark Web. Tor network dark web is also referred to as onionland. Reason for the onionland name is because the top level domain of Tor is onion. Dark Web along with Deep Web not indexed by search engines like google. You will need a directory to find your way around the dark web. The Hidden Wiki is one of the the more popular directories is.

What do I need to surf Tor network dark web?

First of all a browser capable to enter the Tor Network is needed. One browser developed by Tor Project to use for this. In reality Tor browser is a modified Firefox browser with some nice add-ons. Add-ons like NoScript and HTTPS Everywhere. Get your Tow browser here:

The Hidden Wiki you can access here:
You will find a lot of sites there. There is no way you can access them from a normal browser. You need to be connected to Tor Network first. Which means fire up Tor browser from the link above.

There is a lot of stuff in the Dark Web any normal person will condemn because it is almost anonymous. As a result almost anything is out there. Seems like some users got a experience there, according to this article Maybe not just scare stuff, some are as a result quite funny too.

Should i visit Tor network dark web?

Probably a interesting thing to do. You need to be aware that nothing is 100% “safe”. Just because the Tor Network is anonymous doesn’t mean the exit nodes cant be monitored.

Most of all stay safe. Tor Network is helping people to communicate freely.
As a result of that Russia is one of the countries that is offering money to hack Tor Network.

Finally, happy surfing!

Posted in Internet Tagged with: ,

Google knows
May 23rd, 2016 by ronny

Google knows this about you

Google knows this about you, and probably a lot more. They are honest about a lot of things, and they share with you some of the information they have about you.

Google knows your profile

When you uses Googles services like Gmail, YouTube, cloud hosting or any other service, Google tries to create a profile of you as a user. Their profile contains age, sex and interests. This is to create a better user experience for you. But mostly to display relevant ads through Google Ads. That is how they make money on you. To display ads that is likely you will click on. To have a look at how Google see you as a user, you can have a look at this link

Google knows where you have been

Today most smartphones have GPS built in. With an Android phone, or any other phone using Google services, your location is registered all the time. It will do that unless you turn off that feature. Unless you have turned of that feature Google will log your position all the time. This is a question your phone will ask you about the first time you turn your phone on. If you are unsure about you settings, you can vist this link have check (or turn it off)

Google knows what you have been searching for

Googles stores everything you have ever searched for in their search engine. Google also stores every Google Ad you have ever clicked on. This is so they can give you an better user experience and of course make more money. Have a look here to see your search history

Google knows what devices that are connected with your account

If you suspect that someone else uses your google account, you can visit this link and see what devices that are connected to your Google account. Visit this link Here you will get an overview of what devices that is connected to your Google account, the ip addresses and where in the world they connected from. You can also change and restrict the different devices have to your account.

Google knows what applications that have access to your data.

Sometimes there can be third party applications that is connected to your Google account. By visiting this link you can get an overview of which applications that is. As with the devices, you can restrict and change the access for the different applications.

Google knows all your data

If you want to have a look for your self, and have a look at all the data Google have about you. You can download it all here You will get an email with an link to a zip file. The zip file contains everything from bookmarks, emails, pictures, YouTube videos an a lot more.

Thats it for now.

Happy Google!

Posted in Internet Tagged with:

March 28th, 2016 by ronny


ZEEF is like the new google for me lately. There is like human driven databases of information about almost anything. I’ll give you a few examples on list on ZEEF.

Swift programming
This list gives you tons of information and resources for swift programming

iOS development
List about iOS development. again tons of information and resources.

Android development

Give ZEEF a try. It is worth your time. Even better if you are collecting resources your self and want to share with others. This is the place where to do it.

Happy sharing!

Posted in Internet Tagged with: ,

June 12th, 2015 by ronny

Allow port forwarding to Remote Desktop

port forwarding to remote desktop
Using remote desktop from outside your home is a convenient way to work on your home computers/servers when your are away. Most my computers and servers are running Linux, and I mostly use SSH to access them. But I have a Windows Server too and here is how I connect to it from outside my home via port forwarding to remote desktop.

The port you need to forward to remote desktop (rdp) is 3389. And you should have set a static ip to the computer you want to access via remote desktop. How it is done in your router vary from router to router. So you better check your manual for how to set the port forwarding.

In this case I set my router to forward port 3389 to
But to access this computer from outside of your home, you also need to know your routers public ip. If you have a dynamic public ip this can change every time you try to log on. Many routers support services like DynDNS which gives you an url you can access. That url stays the same no matter how often your public ip changes. So you dont have to remember or check your public ip every time you go away.

To use DynDNS you usually just create an free account with them, and insert the username and password into the router. Your router will then handle the rest, like updating your public ip with DynDNS every time it changes. If you router doesn’t support DynDNS (or any similar services), you could also download a small program from their website. That program will do the same thing, updating your public ip every time it changes.

So this is how you can do port forwarding to remote desktop.

Happy remoting!

Posted in Internet, Windows

March 25th, 2015 by ronny

mp3-iconYouTube is a huge source for music. But sometimes when you don´t have access to internet, you can´t play that music. Without Spotify or similar services you have the option to convert those YouTube videos to mp3 files. This might not be legal where you live, so I can´t take any responsibility for this. Anyhow, this is how you do it.

When you have found a song you want to convert to mp3, copy the entire link from your address bar in your browser. Open another windows or tab with your browser and go to

Paste the link to the YouTube video into the one and only text field on the site. Next click the Convert button. After a few seconds your video is processed into a mp3 file, and you click the download link to download your newly created mp3 file.

There are other sites that will do the same. And many of them are good. Some of them is not. If the site wants you to download a executable file, don´t open it. Just delete it. The executable file will not contain any music. And it will most likely harm your computer.

That´s it.

Happy converting!

Posted in Internet